Module C: Biomechanics

Subject description

Introduction to Biomechanics (development of biomechanics trough history, areas of biomechanics, approach to the research) and fundamental terminology; Musculoskeletal motion system in human (human muscle as actuator, joint mechanics); Analysis of rigid and deformable bodies in static conditions (static analysis, center of mass, analysis of elastic materials, deformations, strength of materials); Analysis of human motion (kinematic and kinetic parameters, joint mechanics, motion assessment, joint loadings assessment, energy conditions, assessment of functional capabilities, motion laws in dynamic manoeuvres of walking, running, standing-up and rowing); Motion exercise by intelligent devices incorporating on-line biomechanical analysis and presentation of feedback information.

The subject is taught in programs

Objectives and competences

The objective of the course on Biomechanics is to familiarize students with fundamental laws of mechanics and to present how these can be applied to understanding and analyzing of the living systems. The foundations of biomechanics that are developed in this course include the mechanics of materials and structures of rigid and deformable bodies. The course gives the basic knowledge for interdisciplinary work in the fields of human motion assessment and exercise in rehabilitation and sport. From the perspectives of solutions transfer from nature the knowledge is fundamental in development of robotic systems, artificial organs, biomaterials, rehabilitation products, simulation models, and intelligent devices for exercise in rehabilitation and sport.

Teaching and learning methods

The lectures provide a theoretical background on particular subjects together with presentation of simple practical examples. A complete study material is available to the students.

Practical work is being performed in the laboratory environment, and is accomplished in steps acquainting students with the problem and instrumentation. Project group is consisted of two or three students who accomplish the biomechanical analysis of motion maneuver, e.g. jumping, cycling, rowing or running. At the end of semester, students report on their results together with comparison to the results from the literature. 

Expected study results

After successful completion of the course, students should be able to:

  • develop a mathematical model for the movement of deformable and nondeformable material bodies,
  •  describe biomechanical propulsion mechanisms,
  •  use sensory systems for assessment of the movement parameters and human body loadings that are used in a clinical or sports environment,
  •  analyze the motion of a person and the effects on his body,
  •  calculate the loadings in the joints of the multisegment system during movement,
  • explain the mechanisms of multileg locomotion and maintaining the body balance.

Basic sources and literature

  1. J. D. Humphrey, S.L. Delange, An Introduction to Biomechanics, Solids and Fluids, Analysis and Design, Springer Verlag, New York, 2004.
  2. Y.C. Fung, Biomechanics, Mechanical Properties of Living Tissues, Springer Verlag, New York, 2004.
  3. D. A. Winter, Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement, John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, 2009.
  4. D. Knudson, Fundamentals of Biomechanics, Springer, New York, 2021.
  5. M. Nordin, V. H. Frankel, Basic Biomechanics of the Musculoskeletal System, Wolters Kluwer Health, 2012.

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