Telecommunication Protocols

Subject description

Protocol, protocol entities, syntax and semantics of protocol messages. Protocol stack (principles, OSI model, TCP/IP, communication planes). 

Connection oriented communications and corresponding signalizations. Providing reliable transfer, error detection and correction. Fundamentals of flow and congestion control. System distribution and decentralization. 

Syntax and semantics of messages and data structures. 

Planning and development procedures of communications software. Standardization of communication systems and protocols.

Examples of some specific protocols and more details of  the selected Internet-related application-layer protocols. Web protocols and APIs. 

Fundamentals of blockchain technologies. 

The subject is taught in programs

Objectives and competences

The objective of the course is to provide the knowledge and understanding of the principles and methods for message transfer through the telecommunication systems, fundamentals of telecommunication services, protocols and protocol stacks. Expertise in protocol specification techniques. Overview of some telecommunicationdevelopment methods. Familiarity with planning and IKT systems development tools.  

Teaching and learning methods

Lectures for theoretical aspects, laboratory exercises and team-work for real-case scenarios and problem solving. Part of the pedagogical process will be carried out with the help of ICT technologies and the possiblities they offer. Project work. Invited lecturers.

Expected study results

After successful completion of the course, students should be able to:

– list key principles of communication protocols and describe them,

-differentiate among syntax and semantics of protocol messages and explain differences among them with HTTP REST examples,

-find actual examples of communication protocols to explain the key principles of communication protocols,

-evaluate reliability of message transfer in actual communication protocols,

-design a simple pseudo protocol for message transfer with mechanisms for error detection and prevention, and flow control,

– design and implement a simple Web backend application and interfaces, 

– choose and use tools and services for planning and development. 

Basic sources and literature

  1. Sharp, R., Principles of Protocol Design, Springer, 2008
  2. Stallings, W.: Data and computer communications, 9th ed., ISBN 978-0-13-139205-2, 2011, Prentice Hall.
  3. Fall, K. R., Stevens, W. R.: TCP/IP illustrated. Vol. 1, The Protocols, 2nd ed., ISBN 978-0-321-33631-6, 2012, Addison-Wesley.
  4. D. Hercog, Communication Protocols: Principles, Methods and Specifications. Springer International Publishing, 2020. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-50405-2.
  5. Pustišek, M., Živić, N., Kos, A., Blockchain: technology and applications for Industry 4.0, smart energy, and smart cities. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2021.
  6. Javno dostopna priporočila in standardi, npr./Publicly accessible recommendations and standards, e.g.:,,

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