Digital Structures

Course description

Number systems and codes: number systems, codes, encoding, error detection and correction.

Boolean algebra: propositional logic, Boolean variables, basic operations, derived operations, axioms and theorems, proofs of theorems.

Boolean functions and logic gates: representa-tions, methods of simplification and conversion, Karnaugh map and truth table, logic gates and circuits, functionally complete sets of operations, timing hazards, logic families and technologies and their characteristics, CMOS technology.

Combinational logic circuits: encoders and decoders, multiplexers and demultiplexers, comparators, adders, multipliers, arithmetic-and-logic units.

Computer-aided digital design: minimizers, schematic editors, circuit simulators, hardware description languages, PCB layout designers,
IC layout designers.

Sequential logic circuits: latches and flip-flops, truth table and excitation table, switch debouncers, registers, counters, shift registers, ring counters, excitation equations, state table and state diagram, analysis and synthesis of sequential logic circuits.

Three-state buffers and buses: buffer, Schmitt-trigger buffers, three-state buffers, serial buses, parallel buses.

Programmable logic circuits: storage matrix, ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM, Flash, PLA, PAL, GAL, SRAM, DRAM, CPLD, FPGA. Use of hardware description languages for implementation of combinational and sequential logic in CPLD and FPGA circuits

Additional topics (in case of spare time, but not required in exams): microcontrollers, microprocessors, analog-digital and digital-analog converters, clock generators.

Course is carried out on study programme

Elektrotehnika 1. stopnja

Objectives and competences

To gain the basic theoretical understanding of functioning of digital structures. To acquire the knowledge and basic experience of practical design, implementation and testing of digital structures.

Learning and teaching methods

Lecture classes with examples of problem solving and tutorials to illustrate the theoretical concepts, laboratory work for acquisition of practical skills in design, implementation and testing of digital structures.

Intended learning outcomes

After successful completion of the course, students will be able to:

  • describe the basic combinational and sequential structures of digital circuits;
  • explain the functioning of such structures;
  • describe this functioning in one of the hardware description languages;
  • detect flaws in such functioning;
  • eliminate the basic among such flaws;
  • choose the optimal design of a digital structure, taking into account the requirements  of size, cost and reliability of functioning;
  • design combinational and sequential circuits using the methods of abstract and structural synthesis;
  • utilize the basic classical and modern computer-based methods and tools for simulation and optimization of digital structures;
  • build a prototype of the designed structure in the form of a printed circuit board;
  • test the functioning of such a prototype;

formulate the strengths and weaknesses of the chosen design.

Reference nosilca

1. KOTNIK, Tadej, MIKLAVČIČ, Damijan. Second-order model of membrane electric field induced by alternating external electric fields. IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering, 2000, vol. 47, no. 8, str. 1074-1081.

2. FLISAR, Karel, PUC, Marko, KOTNIK, Tadej, MIKLAVČIČ, Damijan. Cell membrane electroper-meabilization with arbitrary pulse waveforms. IEEE engineering in medicine and biology magazine, 2003, vol. 22, no. 1, str. 77-81.

3. REBERŠEK, Matej, MARJANOVIČ, Igor, BEGUŠ, Samo, PILLET, Flavien, ROLS, Marie-Pierre, MIKLAVČIČ, Damijan, KOTNIK, Tadej. Generator and setup for emulating exposures of biological samples to lightning strokes. IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering, 2015, vol. 62, no. 10, str. 2535-2543.

4. KOTNIK, Tadej. Digitalne strukture: Učno gradivo s predavanj. Ljubljana: Fakulteta za elektro-tehniko, 2010. (

5. PUCIHAR, Gorazd, KOTNIK, Tadej. Digitalne strukture: Zbirka rešenih nalog. Ljubljana: Založba FE in FRI, 185 str., 2011.

Study materials

J. F. Wakerly. Digital Design: Principles and Practices, 5th ed. Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2017.

M. Morris Mano, M. D. Ciletti. Digital Design, 6th ed. Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2017.

W. Kleitz. Digital Electronics, 9th ed. Pearson, 2012.

C. Maxfield. Bebop to the Boolean Boogie, 3rd ed. Newnes, 2009.

G. Pucihar, T. Kotnik, M. Reberšek. Digitalne strukture: Zbirka rešenih nalog. Založba FE in FRI, 2015.

Bodi na tekočem

Univerza v Ljubljani, Fakulteta za elektrotehniko, Tržaška cesta 25, 1000 Ljubljana

E: T:  01 4768 411