Electronics in Automation

Course description

Analog electronics for sensors and embedded systems.

Operational amplifiers and circuits for analog signal conditioning and processing: voltage comparator, voltage follower, inverting and non-inverting voltage amplifier, adder, subtractor, instrumentation amplifier, adjustment of voltage ranges, current-to-voltage converter, peak detector, Schmitt trigger, voltage references. D/A and A/D converters: types and their use in circuits. Resistors, capacitors, built-in and parasitic RC and CR combinations, diodes.

All circuits are illustrated with examples. Analyses and descriptions are highly non-idealized, and they highlight the real characteristics and their parasitic influences on the functioning of the circuits. Non-idealities are analyzed and illustrated with datasheets from manufacturers. Demonstrated are differences between the selected models of operational amplifiers. Described is capturing of signals from voltage, current and resistive sensors with practical examples.

Non-idealities, which tend to hamper precision sensor systems, are thoroughly analyzed: offset voltage, input bias current, input offset current, input and output internal resistances, impact of non-infinite amplification, frequency limit, common-mode rejection, unstable power supply, slew rate, impact of load capacitance, drift, noise, temperature dependence. Outlined are compensations of offset voltage and input bias current, presented are methods for increasing of common-mode rejection ratio. Explained is the use of two operational amplifiers in the loop and correction of frequency characteristics. The most thoroughly discussed non-idealities of AD and DA converters are zero and full-range offset, gain error, integral and differential non-linearity. Demonstrated are measurements of signals’ spectra and observations of distortion.

Analog characteristics of digital circuits with an emphasis on the use in conjunction with embedded systems: output resistance, input impedance, power consumption in conjunction with switching frequency, the influence of capacitive loads, types of digital outputs (totem pole, open drain). Oscillators for microprocessor systems. Analog switches and multiplexers together with their non-idealities.

Practical aspects of circuit realization: non-ideal ground and power lines, the use of blocking capacitors, the concept and use of connections FORCE SENSE and REF, DC and AC coupling, basics of transmission lines.

Course is carried out on study programme

Elektrotehnika 1. stopnja

Objectives and competences

Mastering the concepts and operation of analog circuits for realization of sensor and embedded systems. Treatment is highly non-idealized and with highlight on deviations from the idealized characteristics and the associated problems that occur in practice.

Learning and teaching methods

 Lectures give students theoretical knowledge. Laboratory courses are tightly coupled with lectures, and give true hands-on experience of the lectured topics. Demonstrated is the working of discussed circuits, their non-idealities and methods for their handling.

Intended learning outcomes

After successful completion of the course, students should be able to:

  • design basic and intermediate low-frequency analog circuits for sensor-embedded systems,
  • analyze simple to intermediate schematics of existing low-frequency sensor circuits,
  • identify main non-idealities of electronic components,
  • make basic compensations of nonidealities,
  • analyze frequency characteristics of circuits,
  • empirically and analytically determine relative stability of circuits,
  • make simple frequency compensations.

Reference nosilca

1. MUROVEC, Boštjan, PERŠ, Janez, MANDELJC, Rok, SULIĆ KENK, Vildana, KOVAČIČ, Stanislav. Towards commoditized smart-camera design. Journal of Systems Architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, Nov. 2013, no. 10, part A, str. 847-858.

2. MUROVEC, Boštjan, KOCIJANČIČ, Slavko. A USB-based data acquisition system designed for educational purposes. The international journal of engineering education, ISSN 0949-149X, 2004, vol. 20, no. 1, str. 24-30.

3. MOČNIK, Jure, GORNIK, Miha, MUROVEC, Boštjan, ŽEMVA, Andrej. A concept to optimize power consumption in smart homes based on demand-side management and using smart switches. Elektrotehniški vestnik, ISSN 0013-5852, 2013, letn. 80, št. 5, str. 217-221.

4. MUROVEC, Boštjan, TIEDJE, James M., STRES, Blaž. DNA encoding for an efficient 'Omics processing. Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, ISSN 0169-2607, 2010, vol. 100, no. 2, str. 175-190.

5. NAGODE, Klemen, MUROVEC, Boštjan. A complex hydro-power plant dynamic model integrated into the electrical network. Elektrotehniški vestnik, ISSN 0013-5852, 2015, letn. 82, št. 4, str. 183-190.

Study materials

1. Murovec B., Senzorska elektronika (v izdelavi, študentom je na voljo sproti posodabljana interna verzija, ki odraža trenutno stanje / under construction, students have an access to a frequently updated internal version that reflects the current state).

2. Murovec B., Vezja in signali v senzorski elektroniki (v izdelavi, študentom je na voljo sproti posodabljana interna verzija, ki odraža trenutno stanje / under construction, students have an access to a frequently updated internal version that reflects the current state).

Dokler zgornja učbenika nista dokončana ali kot dopolnilo / until the above textbooks are not completed or a supplement

3. Jung W. , Op Amp Applications Handobook, Analog Devices, 2005.

4. Kester W., The Data Conversion Handbook, Analog Devices, 2005.

5. Zumbahlen H., Linear Circuit Handbook, Analog Devices, 2008.

6. Kitchin C., Counts L., A Designer's Guide to Instrumentation Amplifiers (3rd edition), Analog Devices, 2006.

Bodi na tekočem

Univerza v Ljubljani, Fakulteta za elektrotehniko, Tržaška cesta 25, 1000 Ljubljana

E:  dekanat@fe.uni-lj.si T:  01 4768 411